Unveiling ONDC: The Future of Digital Commerce in India



In the fast-paced digital age, the commercial landscape is experiencing monumental shifts. From product discovery to transaction methods, commerce has been digitally redefined. Spearheading this transformation in India is the Open Network for Digital Commerce (ONDC), an initiative established as a private non-profit Section 8 company under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Government of India. ONDC aims to democratize, standardize, and streamline digital commerce, offering an inclusive and efficient platform for all.

What is ONDC?

ONDC (Open Network for Digital Commerce) is an avant-garde initiative engineered to bring uniformity to digital commerce across India. Incorporated on December 31, 2022, ONDC is backed by the Quality Council of India and Protean eGov Technologies Limited (formerly NSDL e-Governance Infrastructure Limited). Endorsed by the DPIIT, ONDC’s mission is to integrate disparate digital commerce platforms into a unified network. The initiative seeks to make commerce accessible, affordable, and transparent for all stakeholders, including consumers, suppliers, and logistics providers.

Key Objectives of ONDC

Democratization of Digital Commerce

ONDC’s key objective is to level the commercial playing field, particularly in a diverse country like India. By offering a unified platform, ONDC enables vendors of all scales to connect directly with consumers, thus promoting inclusive growth.

Promoting Transparency and Inclusivity

ONDC champions transparency and inclusivity by establishing an open network where all communications and transactions are transparent. This eliminates the middlemen, potentially reducing costs for consumers while increasing profit margins for sellers.

Facilitating Interoperability

The lack of interoperability across platforms often complicates transactions. ONDC addresses this by standardizing protocols, making it simpler for vendors to manage multi-platform operations and easing the buying process for consumers.

Key Objectives: Visualize a balance scale with diverse human icons on each side,

Technologies Behind ONDC: An Advanced Technological Framework

Beckn Protocol: The Cornerstone

Co-developed by industry experts Nandan Nilekani, Pramod Varma, and Sujith Nair in association with ISPIRT, Beckn Protocol is the technological backbone of ONDC. It focuses on standardizing crucial aspects of commercial transactions, including discovery, payment, and fulfillment.

Open Network Design

ONDC employs an open architecture, allowing participants to transact regardless of their chosen platform or application. This inclusiveness fosters a thriving ecosystem.

Advanced Functionalities

ONDC is set to incorporate a range of advanced functionalities, including dynamic pricing, digitized inventory management, and delivery cost optimization, all powered by GPS-enabled hyper-local search features.

Industry Collaborations

Collaborating with industry giants like Microsoft and Oracle, ONDC aims to enhance its capabilities further. While Microsoft focuses on simplifying the onboarding process, Oracle is developing a neutral vendor reputation index.

Financial Integrity and Transparency

With Razorpay integration, ONDC aims to streamline financial transactions by offering a unified transaction view, thereby simplifying dispute resolution and maintaining an audit trail.

ONDC’s Operational Flow

Search and Discovery Protocol

Initiated through a Buyer App, a standardized API request queries the ONDC network. Utilizing protocols for product search and discovery, ONDC returns a curated list of products meeting the search criteria.

Selection and Transaction Protocol

Upon product selection, another API request triggers a series of calls to handle price comparison, inventory checks, and transaction initiation, ensuring real-time data accuracy.

Payment and Checkout

ONDC’s secure payment gateway APIs facilitate encrypted and safe transaction processes, confirming the transaction to both buyer and seller.

Order Fulfillment and Logistics

Post-payment, a standardized set of APIs within ONDC’s integrated logistics solutions manages and updates the order status, keeping all parties updated.

Data Flows

Real-time databases and message queues ensure real-time data sharing across platforms, thereby making ONDC an efficient, transparent, and user-friendly system.

By leveraging a host of cutting-edge technologies and protocols, ONDC is on track to redefine India’s digital commerce landscape.

Buyer App: Your Gateway to E-commerce on ONDC

The Buyer App serves as the linchpin in the customer journey, providing a robust interface for users to browse, select, and purchase an expansive selection of products or services from sellers on the ONDC network. Designed with a user-first approach, this app prioritizes security and enriches the consumer experience through a broad spectrum of innovative features.

Essential Functions

  • Dynamic Product Discovery: The app empowers users to efficiently sift through a vast catalog of products across diverse categories. Advanced filtering options like price range, brand preference, and geographic availability enable a laser-focused search.
  • In-Depth Price Analytics: Leveraging a cutting-edge price comparison algorithm, the Buyer App aids in making informed purchasing decisions by dynamically comparing pricing metrics from multiple vendors.
  • Frictionless Payment Flow: Integrating a versatile payment gateway, the app accommodates a wide variety of payment methods to ensure a streamlined and encrypted transaction process.
  • Holistic Order Tracking: Post-purchase, users gain access to real-time tracking information, offering granular details from the point of inventory dispatch to doorstep delivery.
  • Interactive Review Ecosystem: The app facilitates a two-way review and rating system, cultivating a community-driven platform that enriches the overall shopping experience by enabling informed decisions.
  • AI-Powered Personalization: Utilizing machine learning algorithms, the app extends personalized product suggestions and wish list functionalities, aligning with individual user behaviors and preferences.

Distinguished Features

  • Systemic Interoperability: Crafted to harmonize with other components of the ONDC ecosystem, such as Seller Apps and logistics solutions, for a cohesive user experience.
  • Live Data Sync: The app is equipped to display real-time inventory and pricing fluctuations, fortified by data integrity measures to maintain up-to-the-minute accuracy.
  • Fortified Security Protocols: Industry-standard security measures like multi-factor authentication (MFA) and end-to-end encryption of payment data are implemented to protect user credentials and financial information.
  • User-Centric Design: The app’s design ethos prioritizes an intuitive UI/UX, making it accessible and easy-to-navigate for users of all tech proficiency levels.
  • Profile Customization: Beyond basic profile settings, users can effortlessly save multiple payment methods and define product categories of interest, enhancing the tailored shopping experience.

Seller App: Empowering Vendors on ONDC

In the intricate ONDC ecosystem, the Seller App stands as an indispensable tool for vendors, retailers, and service providers. It streamlines interactions with potential customers while offering a comprehensive suite of features to administer various aspects of e-commerce.

Core Features

  • Advanced Inventory Management: This core function allows sellers to list new products, amend existing ones, and monitor stock levels dynamically, facilitated by real-time synchronization.
  • Automated Order Management: Incoming orders from the Buyer App populate the Seller App dashboard for seamless processing, packaging, and dispatching.
  • Financial Tools & Payment Reconciliation: The app comes integrated with features for automated reconciliation of transactions, invoicing, and robust financial reporting.
  • Direct Customer Interaction: An embedded messaging system allows for instant customer service and support, giving sellers a direct channel to communicate with buyers.
  • Marketing Suite: Tools for crafting and launching promotions, discounts, and advertisements are at your disposal, aimed at bolstering sales and marketing initiatives.
  • Analytics Dashboard: Sellers can glean actionable insights from a range of metrics covering sales performance, customer behavior, and other vital KPIs.

Specialized Functionalities

  • Multi-Platform Support: Designed for interoperability, the Seller App enables centralized management of listings across diverse marketplaces via a single dashboard.
  • Instant Notifications: Real-time alerts for new orders, cancellations, or customer queries ensure swift response times and operational efficiency.
  • Secure Data Handling: Deploying industry-leading security protocols, including encrypted data storage and secure authentication mechanisms, the app maintains stringent data integrity.
  • User-Friendly Design: The intuitive UI/UX caters to users across the technical spectrum, making the app accessible and straightforward to navigate.
  • Store Customization: The app offers ample room for tailoring product listings, images, and pricing models to create a unique shopping environment.

Supporting Apps in ONDC Ecosystem

Logistics Apps

  • Real-Time Tracking: Enables complete transparency during transit for all parties involved.
  • Inventory Sync: Streamlines inventory management by synchronizing data between logistics services and the Seller App.
  • Automated Notifications: Provides updates on package delivery, delays, or any other crucial details.

Payment Gateway Apps

  • Multi-Currency Support: Facilitates international transactions.
  • Robust Security: Utilizes SSL certificates and two-factor authentication to safeguard transactions.
  • Instant Reconciliation: Sends real-time transaction status updates to both buyers and sellers.

Customer Service Apps

  • Live Chat: Allows instant issue resolution.
  • Ticketing Mechanism: Manages complex issues through a dedicated ticketing system.
  • Feedback Collection: Incorporates customer feedback for continual service improvement.
Analytics and Monitoring Tools

Various backend tools help monitor performance, track user engagement, and gather insights.

  • Performance Metrics: These tools can display key metrics such as average transaction values, customer retention rates, and more.
  • Security Monitoring: Features might include real-time monitoring of system health and security, ensuring a smooth, secure, and reliable operation of the ONDC network.

Who Builds These Apps? A Detailed Examination of the Tech Teams Powering ONDC’s Partner Platforms

In the ever-evolving landscape of digital commerce, the Open Network for Digital Commerce (ONDC) is a game-changer. Partnering with a plethora of platforms, ONDC aims to standardize and simplify online transactions. But who are the tech experts behind the curtain? This article offers an in-depth look at the key players building the apps that make up ONDC’s ecosystem, updated as of May 2023.

Buyer Apps

  1. Paytm: Engineered by One97 Communications, Paytm’s technical squad excels in Java, Python, and SQL, specifically focusing on high-performance mobile payment architectures.
  2. Pincode by PhonePe: Built by PhonePe, a technology company based in Bangalore, the tech stack includes a blend of Java, Kotlin, and Flutter, optimizing for mobile payment solutions.
  3. Magicpin: Developed by a specialized engineering team, they employ Android and iOS frameworks, frequently utilizing Swift and Kotlin, to provide rewards and deals to users.
  4. MyStore: A dedicated team that focuses on Python and popular JavaScript frameworks like React crafts this e-commerce solution.
  5. Spice Money: Spearheaded by a tech team with deep expertise in the finance sector, their tech stack primarily features .NET and SQL.
  6. Crafts Villa: With a forte in Magento and PHP, the technical team aims to digitize traditional crafts through a specialized e-commerce platform.

Seller Apps

  1. Meesho: A team skilled in Progressive Web Apps (PWA) technologies like Node.js and React creates this platform.
  2. Snapdeal: The app relies on an in-house development team proficient in Java and Scala, engineered for scalability and performance.

Logistics Apps

  1. Ekart: Developed by Flipkart’s specialized logistics division, Ekart’s tech framework is primarily Java and Go-based, built for large-scale logistics operations.
  2. Dunzo: This hyperlocal delivery platform is the brainchild of a Bangalore-based tech team experienced in Python and Kotlin.

Payment Network Partners

  1. Paytm & PhonePe: Both platforms have specialized fintech wings, where Paytm utilizes a Java-centric backend and PhonePe employs a balanced mix of Java and GoLang.

Logistics Network Partners

  1. Ecom Express and Shiprocket: These logistics platforms boast specialized tech teams, where Shiprocket relies on a PHP, Laravel, and Vue.js stack, and Ecom Express employs Python and Java.

Restaurant Network Partners

  1. NRAI (National Restaurant Association of India): Backed by a proficient engineering team, NRAI focuses on CRM and POS integrations using JavaScript frameworks and Python.

Other Players

  1. ITC Limited, Hindustan Unilever, Dabur, and Nivea: These FMCG giants rely on either internal tech teams or outsourced experts, mostly proficient in SAP and enterprise-level solutions.

The Interconnected Ecosystem

The brilliance of the ONDC ecosystem is in its seamless integration among its various facets—be it Buyer or Seller Apps or supporting applications like payment gateways and logistics providers. This interconnected nature ensures an end-to-end digital commerce solution.

  • Buyer-Seller Interaction: Buyer Apps and Seller Apps are tightly integrated, providing real-time updates and inventory synchronization.
  • Payment Processing: Payment gateways are embedded deeply within the Buyer and Seller Apps, offering instant payment confirmations and uniform security measures.
  • Logistics & Delivery: Logistics apps auto-receive order details and provide real-time tracking updates, facilitating the shipping process.
  • Customer Service & Feedback: Customer service solutions are woven into the apps, with options for live chat and ticket generation.
  • Analytics & Reporting: Specialized analytics tools collect comprehensive data, offering detailed insights via dashboards, which help in making informed business decisions.

In conclusion, the ONDC ecosystem boasts fluidity and seamless operations at every stage, right from product discovery to payment and delivery. It is this high level of interoperability and integrated functionality that marks ONDC as a comprehensive digital commerce solution.

Real-world Use-cases or Examples

While the technological framework and operational mechanisms behind ONDC are certainly fascinating, what truly demonstrates the platform’s efficacy are real-world use-cases. These examples serve as testimonials to the benefits ONDC offers, while also shedding light on potential challenges that need to be addressed. Let’s delve into some illustrative scenarios.

Use-case 1: Local Artisan Marketplace


  • Democratization of Commerce: A local artisan, previously restricted to selling handicrafts in a small town, gains nationwide exposure by listing products on an ONDC-enabled platform.
  • Inventory Management: The Seller App allows for easy tracking of which items have been sold, making restocking more straightforward.


  • Logistics: While ONDC allows the artisan to reach a wider audience, coordinating nationwide shipping remains a logistical hurdle.

Use-case 2: Bulk Grocery Purchasing


  • Transparency: A small restaurant owner can now compare bulk prices from multiple suppliers on an ONDC platform, ensuring cost-efficiency.
  • Streamlined Payments: Integrated payment gateways allow for one-click payments, making transactions swift and hassle-free.


  • Quality Assurance: While prices are transparent, ensuring consistent quality across different suppliers could pose a challenge.

Use-case 3: E-healthcare Services


  • Interoperability: Patients can easily share their medical records with various healthcare providers, thanks to ONDC’s standardization of data formats.
  • Privacy: Advanced security protocols keep sensitive healthcare data secure.


  • Technical Know-how: The healthcare providers need to be adequately trained to utilize ONDC’s functionalities effectively.

Use-case 4: Consumer Electronics


ONDC in Action: Real-World Use-Cases

While ONDC’s technological infrastructure and operational dynamics are compelling, its true potency is best exemplified through real-world applications. These use-cases elucidate the platform’s advantages while spotlighting areas that warrant improvement.

Use-case 1: Empowering Local Artisans


  • Market Expansion: An artisan, once limited to a local market, gains nationwide visibility by listing crafts on an ONDC-integrated platform.
  • Smart Inventory Management: Utilizing the Seller App, artisans can meticulously manage stock levels and identify items needing restocking.


  • Logistical Complexities: Achieving efficient nationwide distribution remains a formidable task, even with the expanded market reach.

Use-case 2: Optimizing Bulk Grocery Procurement


  • Price Transparency: Restaurant owners can judiciously compare bulk prices from multiple vendors, ensuring cost-effective purchasing.
  • Swift Transactions: The integrated payment gateways enable streamlined, one-click transactions, enhancing operational efficiency.


  • Quality Consistency: Verifying the uniform quality of products from diverse suppliers is a lingering issue.

Use-case 3: Revolutionizing E-Healthcare


  • Data Interoperability: Standardized data formats allow seamless sharing of medical records across different healthcare providers.
  • Enhanced Privacy: Cutting-edge security measures protect sensitive patient data.


  • User Proficiency: Healthcare providers must acquire adequate training to make optimal use of ONDC’s functionalities.

Use-case 4: Expanding Consumer Electronics Choices


  • Diverse Offerings: The ONDC ecosystem consolidates a wide variety of consumer electronics, furnishing customers with expanded choices.
  • Immediate Customer Support: Integrated customer service platforms ensure quick issue resolution.


  • Inter-Platform Compatibility: Achieving absolute standardization across multiple vendor platforms presents a considerable challenge.

By examining these real-world use-cases, it becomes evident that ONDC offers substantial benefits in democratizing digital commerce, promoting transparency, and enabling interoperability. However, challenges do exist, primarily in areas like logistics, quality assurance, and platform standardization, which provide areas for potential improvement.

ONDC: Stakeholders, Regulatory Landscape, and Key Strategies

Stakeholders and Strategic Partnerships

ONDC is a collaborative initiative, involving multiple stakeholders, each contributing unique assets and capabilities.

  • Government Entities: Led by India’s Ministry of Commerce and Industry, ONDC enjoys strong governmental backing. Regulatory bodies like TRAI and RBI could also be involved to monitor compliance in telecommunications and financial operations.
  • Private Sector: Various tech companies, from industry stalwarts to burgeoning fintech startups, are instrumental in ONDC’s tech stack development.
  • NGOs: Non-profit organizations champion ONDC’s benefits, specifically its reach into rural and underprivileged areas.
  • Key Partnerships: ONDC has engaged in strategic partnerships with industry leaders, aiming for technology sharing, network interoperability, and broad reach.

Regulatory Landscape

ONDC adheres to a framework of legal and regulatory norms:

  • Data Protection: Consistent with India’s upcoming data protection laws, ONDC prioritizes user data privacy and security.
  • Commerce Laws: Being an offshoot of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, ONDC is obliged to follow e-commerce regulations, including consumer protection and anti-competition laws.
  • Financial Compliance: As a facilitator of digital transactions, ONDC must adhere to RBI’s stringent guidelines concerning digital payments.

User Experience and Interface

  • Intuitive UI: ONDC’s applications feature user-centric designs with easy navigation.
  • High Performance: Utilizing a robust LAMP stack, the apps are optimized for fast load times and responsiveness.
  • Interoperability: A hallmark feature is the seamless interaction between various ONDC apps, ensuring a unified user experience.
  • Accessibility: The platform incorporates features like voice commands and screen readers to cater to differently-abled users.

Monetization Strategies

ONDC’s sustainability relies on effective revenue-generating mechanisms:

  • Subscription Plans: Premium features and data analytics could be provided to sellers under subscription-based models.
  • Transaction Fees: Nominal fees for transactions are a possibility, akin to traditional payment gateway models.
  • Government Subsidies: Initial operations might be subsidized by the government to spur adoption.
  • Targeted Advertising: As user volume grows, ONDC may opt for targeted ad placements.
  • Affiliate Marketing: Collaborations with vendors for specific product promotions could serve as another income avenue.

Comparative Analysis

  • National Context: ONDC goes beyond digital payment solutions like UPI, offering an integrated approach to digital commerce.
  • Global Parallels: ONDC has resemblances to Europe’s Open Banking initiatives but has a broader scope.
  • Unique Features: The emphasis on transparency and interoperability sets ONDC apart from other market solutions.
  • Competitive Challenges: Globally renowned platforms could be strong competitors; ONDC must continually innovate to stay relevant.

Security and Compliance

  • Data Encryption: End-to-end encryption safeguards data transit between services.
  • Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): A 2FA mechanism adds an extra layer of security for both buyers and sellers.
  • Regular Audits: Security audits are conducted periodically to ensure compliance and detect vulnerabilities.
  • API Security: Strong API key authentication and role-based access controls secure data exchanges.

Challenges and Criticisms

ONDC has promising objectives, but there are also hurdles and critiques to navigate:

Adoption Rates

  • Challenge: Sluggish adoption, particularly in the SME sector, poses a risk to ONDC’s goals.
  • Solution: A multi-faceted approach involving awareness campaigns, possible fiscal incentives, and case studies could accelerate adoption rates.

Technical Barriers

  • Challenge: Technological complexities can be a deterrent for some users unfamiliar with the digital ecosystem.
  • Solution: Investment in comprehensive onboarding and training programs, coupled with an intuitive UI/UX, can ease this transition.

Future Outlook

ONDC is poised for various advancements:

  • Greater Interoperability: Work is in progress to integrate ONDC with multiple e-commerce platforms, thus widening its utility.
  • AI and Machine Learning: Incorporation of advanced analytics, user personalization, and fraud detection mechanisms through AI and ML technologies are on the horizon.


ONDC aims to be a transformative force in digital commerce, focusing on democratization and transparency. Although there are challenges, the potential for positive impact is considerable, making ONDC an exciting prospect in the evolving digital commerce landscape.



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